Námaskarð earns its notoriety chiefly because of its sulphurous mud springs called solfataras and steam springs called fumaroles. The constant emission of the fumes has made the ground utterly sterile and acidic, unfit to sustain any floras and faunas. You must bear in mind that the fumes can be harmful for humans as well.


Into Hell’s Gate

The hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg smelling) fumes were absolutely choking!


Leaving Hell


Dimmuborgir (dimmu "dark"; borgir "cities" (or "forts") is a large area of unusually shaped lava fields east of Mývatn in Iceland. The Dimmuborgir area is composed of various caves and rock formations, remnants of volcanic activity that are perhaps reminiscent of an ancient collapsed citadel, with columns spewing plumes of sulfuric smoke. In Icelandic folklore, Dimmuborgir is said to connect earth with the infernal regions.

Dimmuborgir was created in about 2,300 years ago

Dimmuborgir, on the east side of the lake, is a sprawling 2,000-year-old field of black volcanic pillars, some as high as 65 feet. You can explore the caves and arches of this perfect science-fiction movie set, including an inexplicable 16-foot-wide hole in the middle of a lava formation.

Triesti Triestison
The Mid-Atlantic (sic) Ridge
The European Plate above, the North American Plate on bottom.